Avalanche rescue

Avalanche rescue

BASIC INFORMATION rescue during avalanche disaster

WHAT TO OWN ALL MEANS “Be buried by avalanches”

  1. Are Captured Avalanches – little did leknul, but yet it still goes ...
  2. You're tearing down and DAL SES in uncontrolled movements with meat SNOW – 8% entrained at this moment killed, so you no longer have to read on!! (It may at this point also cause for very serious injuries)
  3. When your movement is a mass of snow stops, you're conscious but completely covered with snow ...
  4. You're the very people who are uncompromisingly utemován in snowpack meter below the surface or deeper i ...
  5. It also're the ones who have totally clogged nose and mouth with snow and snow to whom the pressure in the chest or allow the slightest touch and so you second by second huge problems to breathe a little ...
  6. Do you realize that you can not do anything and're getting extra cold and then ... then I do not realize ...

Avalanche ACCIDENT

THAT 1 (0 – 18 MINUTES) – PHASE OF SURVIVAL:

Until this moment dying 8 people out of a hundred! They die from severe injuries incompatible with life.

The others in this moment have the maximum chance of rescue and because in those 18 minutes is not possible for the Mountain Rescue Service to get to the place (it was only by the incredible coincidence) is to help at this stage in your hands.

Therefore, you need to be equipped with avalanche rescue tools and have a perfectly rehearsed and their use as a rescue!! Therefore it is pointless to rely on the RECCO system.

THAT 2 (18 – 35 minutes) – PHASE Dusen:

At this moment dying all those who silted up during the fall in a landslide mouth and nose with snow or own vomit, etc. At this point He's been dying 70% of the buried!!

Bod 3 to 4 (35 – 120 minutes) – A CLOSURE PHASE hypothermia air cavities:

At the moment, only those survive who were very lucky and still have airway (only 30%). He succeeds but a huge problem with hypothermia ... Only in these moments is able to interfere Mountain Rescue!!

ITEM 4 (about 130 minutes)

At this point, there is the closure of the air cavity. Little snow pocket that you held on to life, begins to slowly cover the ice. This will conclude the last connection to the world ...

What can you do when you get to be you Lavine

  1. At the moment when the avalanche starts to move ATTEMPT TO UNLOCK your ski bindings or snowboard, on the contrary, attempts traveled RUNWAY Lavin (WHERE airbags).
  2. Once you capture an avalanche, try to keep the surface using “swimming” movements. Try to swim up to the side out of the mainstream. Alternatively, try to get rid backpack (of course, if it is not airbags), poles, skis.
  3. It is also trying at all costs Protect your face with your hands. Alternatively, attempts to curl up and a hell of breath and mainly even before the avalanche stops (!! IMMEDIATELY IF YOU FEEL THAT STOPS avalanche!)
  4. After stopping then attempts to create an air pocket in front of their mouth and nose and clean your mouth from the snow. (So ​​if you have your hands near your face, you're awake ...)
  5. Try to remain calm, and do not hope!!

What can you do when you DO Lavin GET YOUR FRIEND

  1. Calm down!! Do not underestimate the stress and anxiety ...
  2. Follow affected in the landslide and mark in the spirit of the place (using connectors significant points) where you last saw him. YET niche NEVYBÍHEJTE!!
  3. Call for help talkie or mobile phone if you can!!
    Minute interview does not jeopardize the rescue too, on the contrary ...

    • at least someone will know about the event in the event that you covered in any other avalanche
    • whether a buried avalanche transceiver or not, mountain service you and a friend the maximum chance (in the case of severe injury, loss avalanche search engines, other complications and especially transportation)
    • If you stand somewhere up in the saddle, there is a chance that there will be signal rather than later in the boiler… (Later in the signal path can be hours long!)
  4. CREATE EFFECTIVE plan (including regression)! REMEMBER FOR YOUR SAFETY WARNING TO OTHER avalanche!!
  5. ALL unmounted FRIENDS SHOULD IMMEDIATELY searches SPACE likely peppered least 20 minutes.
  6. Only after 20 minutes, you must go MEMBER OF misfortune report (if it was not already do radio or mobile phone).
  7. BEWARE OF POLLUTION AREA avalanche odor! If you fail, the last realistic chance of avalanches PSI.
  8. Search for location backfilled using avalanche transceivers, avalanche probes, or wands, but remember while using to search his sight and hearing.
    • no matter if you start from the top or from the bottom, the only criteria would you be the least time required
    • when more lifesavers you should have a simple search routes – Line!!
    • At the end let pinpoint the most experienced – fine tracing is time consuming and requires experience!!
    • in the search still keep in mind the possible danger of further avalanches!!
  9. If you specify the position of the buried, specify it using avalanche probe and determine the approximate depth of burial. POSITIVE PROBE DO NOT DO!!
  10. Immediately all the shovels dig what you have available. Not straight down, but sideways from the side!!
    Important note:

    • digging note that the bottom of the pit is very convenient (if there is no other avalanche!) for basic treatment (lee, minimal need to move flat and hard surface ...)
    • note also that it is very advantageous this kickoff to the injured covered with tarpaulin (eg the United bivouac sacks)
    • it is important to decide whether you will attend buried in the pit where you dig it, or it odtransportujete away from any further avalanches!!
    • for avalanche victims is of course better if you'll be able to be treated on the spot without any other complications ...
    • !! It is crucial that members of the group dug up (and not just located the PLACE) buried DURING A quarter of an hour to calculate every second!!
      This is technically called »buddy help!!

FIRST AID MEASURES (RECOVERY IN 35 MINUTES, friendly assistance)

  • During this period is critical speed of rescue in order to avoid a rapid suffocation!
  • FIRST AID ALREADY DURING RECOVERY!!
  • RECOGNITION air pocket is a secondary!!
  1. If you come across a body buried immediately hands to create an air tunnel to face.
  2. Bear in mind the whiplash.
  3. Release the airways and keep them loose. Immediately check breathing and pulse.
  4. PLACE buried, an unconscious person in the recovery position on the side.
  5. If peppered breathing, give artificial respiration although it is still partially buried and start indirect heart massage (CPR) on a hard surface (jumping, hard-packed snow). Immediately after removal of the buried original position to continue resuscitation until such time as it takes over the rescue team.
  6. Protect from cold and wind clothing and covering HEAD FIRST. Move of the Velcro backing.

TEN FUNDAMENTAL ERRORS IN RESCUE Avalanche

Common mistakes that often happen due to ignorance.

  1. Possible errors:
    Unmounted members of the avalanche leaves too soon.

    CORRECT:
    Intensive search 15 minutes by sight, hearing, and avalanche transceivers.

    Leaving immediately after the avalanche disaster is a serious mistake to rescue their comrades.

  2. Possible errors:
    Excess input to the avalanche.

    CORRECT:
    Access only to locate avalanche, dug up buried or treatment.

    When you spot the avalanche rescue team arrives, so the avalanche should enter only those members who are responsible for locating, rescuing and treating buried by an avalanche. Always remember that the buried victim might be just below the surface and survives only because of the fragile air pockets that could be udupáním area destroyed.

  3. Possible errors:
    Pulling the probe after a possible award.

    CORRECT:
    After finding possible, leave the probe in the snow.

    If Rescuer (-ka) thinks he has found something probing, the probe must not be removed, but must remain in the snow as a brand before it buried dug because at the second attempt, a probe may have the wrong direction and may be delayed rescue.

  4. Possible errors:
    Digging straight down.

    CORRECT:
    Dig a hole large sloping rescue from the side.

    Do not knock straight down but at an angle parties to destroy possible air pocket. When is peppered found, determine its location, using your hands to release the head and protect zasypanému face during the rescue so that snow does not block his airway. Rescue pit must be large enough to permit at least one rescue work and would begin to perform first aid measures.

  5. Possible errors:
    Calling affecting physician after digging up buried.

    CORRECT:
    Call a physician immediately affecting the location of the buried.

    Often affecting physician called up when he was peppered successfully excavated. Ideally, it should be affecting physician present during the rescue operations, in order to detect the presence of air pockets and that the airways are clear. On the basis of these findings, if the buried heart attack, your doctor may decide whether resuscitation (The Resurrection) to continue or discontinue.

  6. Possible errors:
    It can not be out for an air pocket and airways.

    CORRECT:
    Examine the area in front of the mouth and nose, assess airway.

    Evaluation of air pockets and Respiratory basic questions you need to be careful during rescue operations. Concept “air pocket” refers to a kind of cavity (no matter how small) in front of the mouth and nose simultaneously with the free airways.

  7. Possible errors:
    Implementation of large movements with body buried during rescue operations.

    CORRECT:
    Extricating buried as efficiently as possible.

    When rescue hypothermic should avoid large movements in order to prevent cooling of the body core cool rush of blood from the periphery. While this is difficult in practice, inevitable movements of the limbs should be done as slowly as possible.

  8. Possible errors:
    Non-imposition buried unconscious on the side.

    CORRECT:
    Save buried in the unconscious, which is not intubated, on its side.

    Hypothermia victim, who is not intubated, should be stored in a stable position on one of the flanks and evacuated in this position. There is no good reason not to adopt this habit.

  9. Possible errors:
    Reviving “snowmen”.

    CORRECT:
    Follow the recommendations Ikari.

    Prolonged recovery of dead victims without air pockets can not be recommended and may bring additional risk to the rescue team. If the criteria for recognition of death filled, in accordance with the recommendations of ICAR affecting doctor may interrupt the recovery of the disaster site.

  10. Possible errors:
    Interruption recovery in the filled with air pocket.

    CORRECT:
    Hypothermia is an air pocket in the avalanche can not be declared dead until then to warm up and then down to death.

    If it is found buried with an air pocket, should not be lost belief. “Hypothermia is an air pocket in the avalanche can not be declared dead until then to warm up and then down to death.” This means that reviving hypothermic victims with air pockets that have a heart attack, should be continued until active warming up in the hospital.

REPORTING disaster – CALL FOR HELP

!! SHORT MESSAGES = EFFECTIVE HELP!!

General procedure:

  1. WHO?
    • The name of the person calling or organization
    • Phone number or name calling radio
    • A place to call
  2. Where is the place a disaster?
    If you do not know the name or local name, try to briefly and effectively describe your current route, or what you see (landmarks). And not just because it is still necessary to follow the map where I am!!
  3. What happened?
  4. Coordinates?
    As you know, this is the best!! They also derive from the map, but beware of possible error!!
  5. WHEN misfortune happened? Time is a very important factor!!
  6. HOW MANY AFFECTED? What injuries? Dead?
  7. The number of those who can help at the scene?
  8. WEATHER IN AREA WHERE accident happened?
    • Visibility is important for the possibility of deploying a helicopter!!
    • Visibility: less than 200 m to 1 km, more than 1 km
    • important is also the altitude of clouds
  9. HELICOPTER, landing on the scene: possible or impossible?
    If the landing is not possible (deep forest, rocks, ...) do not worry, the handler and the dog there and the helicopter can land using rope (crane, pods)!
  10. Phone hang up after ringing!!
  11. SOS phone numbers:
    pro Krkonoše: 420 602 448 338, 420 499 433 230 155 Nebo (v případě pouze polského signálu možno 112 free)
    pro Jeseníky: 420 554 779 020, 420 602 696 691 155 Nebo

NOTE:

The functional mobile phone base!! (Batteries, credit and SOS numbers – before the hike always remember to add!)

YOU A HELICOPTER

!! Regarding YOU A HELICOPTER: REMEMBER THE PILOT IS A PROFESSIONAL WILL ALWAYS DECIDE WITHOUT PREJUDICE TO YOU!!

You just had to try too drunk at landing!

Your very effective aid can be expressed in three basic points:

  • Try to identify suitable landing site (and possibly angry with the pilot, if at this point does not land)
  • Try to make sure all loose objects in the vicinity of the planned landing, so that could endanger helicopter
  • try to control the other onlookers and helicopter to approach the ONLY accompanied by crew member

Communication with the helicopter:

  • – YES – Yes, I need help!!
  • – NO – No, I do not need help!!

YOUR OPTIONS BASIC RESCUE Avalanche

SAFETY EQUIPMENT WHICH REDUCES THE RISK OF COMPREHENSIVE peppered IS MUCH MORE EFFECTIVE THAN EQUIPMENT THAT DOES NOT ADDRESS THE PROBLEM OF COMPREHENSIVE backfilled.

  1. REDUCED RANGE backfilled
    (ABS – avalanche airbag and its various modifications)
    Mortality is completely submerged by a very high 52.4% without ABS, compared with only 4.2% partially filled-in, or not at all nezasypanými ...
    Any measure that will reduce the likelihood of full peppered INDICATES reduction of mortality!!
  2. REDUCED LENGTH backfilled
    (Dog, avalanche search, avalanche ball, recco, probe, shovel, dowsing rods, ... Sorted by speed search)
    If the victim is completely submerged in an avalanche in a way that can not be found on the surface, can reduce the time nezasypaní friends filling and thus mortality using localization device or buried avalanche probe.
  3. EXTENSION OF TIME DURING THE SURVIVAL OF COMPREHENSIVE backfilled
    If a person is able to completely buried passable airways and create an air pocket over his mouth and nose, extend yourself time to survive.

BASIC SAFETY EQUIPMENT IN AVALANCHE TERRAIN

  • safety equipment can cause a false sense of security. Any increase in security is useless if you are willing to accept again at greater risk (the risk compensation)
  • only behavior based on awareness of the risks and avoiding risky situations is the only protection against death in a landslide!!

Anyone who goes into open terrain, should therefore be inherent in these life saving equipment and SHOULD ALSO ABLE IS PERFECTLY in practice:

Basic equipment – this should always have each
Avalanche device Your basic tool for avalanche rescue in disaster. For safe use of this equipment is necessary to follow certain rules:

  • able to work with him in practice working perfectly
  • wear it properly and check its functionality
Lavinová probe Often underrated part of avalanche safety equipment. Without it, however, your search may properly any longer.
Avalanche shovel Digging his friend out of the snow with bare hands or using skis probably also not so good and time is our greatest enemy.
Rescue material Natural part of the equipment of each experienced hikers and climbers.
Cellular phone battery, credit and SOS phone numbers, you say
Excellent supplement
ABS – avalanche airbag The most effective means of avalanche rescue. But you still have to have the above-mentioned means.
or
Avalanche ball If you do not have the financial resources to ABS – avalanche airbag and still want his fate a little help invest in it.

PROFESSIONAL SEARCH IN GIANT MOUNTAINS

PES – Unrivaled avalanche transceiver

  • for buried avalanche transceivers without a dog is almost the only real chance!!
  • Note that even under ideal conditions, the deployment handler with a dog can be up to about 20 – 30 minutes (the time required for helicopter range)!
  • beginning deployment without the use of a helicopter stretches up to an hour!!
  • Dog works even under difficult conditions (darkness, snow, glacier, ...)! Just a small support group, does not require dozens of rescue helicopter or sounding like they need some special search engine ...
  • well-trained avalanche dog looking much faster than even the best AVALANCHE UNIT!!

CAUTION:

Problems that may complicate the situation:

  • avalanche too dirty odors
  • uncontrolled movement too many people after laviništi
  • strong or gusty winds, which also often changing direction

CLASSICAL probing

  • only as a stopgap!!

PROBLEM:

  • problem of enormous time-consuming method itself is also enhanced by the problem of arousing and the subsequent arrival of large quantities of rescuers on the scene!!
  • Scan area called rychlosondáží (60 x 60 cm) has only 70% efficiency!!
  • CAUTION! IF peppered found at a depth greater than 2 – 2.5 M, is found buried by this method impossible ...
  • TIME, TIME, TIME FOR YOURSELF A Drina!

RECCO SYSTEM

Attention: We is not available!!

  • need to be wearing a RECCO plate (it should not be a problem – wide availability)! I campuses are equipped with RECCO transmitter is already pretty good ..., but we is not!!
  • sense can only be in the immediate area of ​​slopes where they have a good dog lavinovýho
  • !! CAUTION – even under ideal conditions it is possible to use up to about 20 – 30 minutes (the time required to roll out range or helicopter rescuers on skis or snowmobile to the scene)!

PROBLEM:

  • plate itself is free but you RECCO transmitter and receiver useless!! The plate works only as “reflector” for the transmitted signal, which is then reflected from the back to the transmitter. To save thus need except wafers (passive) and transmitter (active)!
  • CAUTION! RECCO system does not allow the TOR. Friendly HELP!!
  • Moreover, the additional disadvantage is a fairly small range of 10 – 20 M!! And the resulting very slow SEARCH!!

Thermography

The system functioning well to find out where we house the most heat escapes. But to find people in avalanches absolutely unworthy. Unfortunately, snow is an excellent thermal insulator, so ...

SOURCE: Mountain Rescue Service of the Czech Republic

 

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